Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 3.13 Frequency and Phase Modulation


    What may happen if an FM transmitter is operated with the microphone gain or deviation control set too high?
    It may cause digital interference to computer equipment
    It may cause atmospheric interference in the air around the antenna
    It may cause interference to other stations operating on a higher frequency band
    It may cause interference to other stations operating near its frequency

    What may your FM hand-held or mobile transceiver do if you shout into its microphone?
    It may cause interference to other stations operating near its frequency
    It may cause digital interference to computer equipment
    It may cause atmospheric interference in the air around the antenna
    It may cause interference to other stations operating on a higher frequency band

    What can you do if you are told your FM hand-held or mobile transceiver is overdeviating?
    Talk louder into the microphone
    Let the transceiver cool off
    Change to a higher power level
    Talk farther away from the microphone

    What kind of emission would your FM transmitter produce if its microphone failed to work?
    A frequency-modulated carrier
    An amplitude-modulated carrier
    An unmodulated carrier
    A phase-modulated carrier

    Why is FM voice best for local VHF/UHF radio communications?
    It has high-fidelity audio which can be understood even when the signal is somewhat weak
    The carrier is not detectable
    It is more resistant to distortion caused by reflected signals
    Its RF carrier stays on frequency better than the AM modes

    What is the usual bandwidth of a frequency-modulated amateur signal?
    Between 10 and 20 kHz
    Less than 5 kHz
    Between 5 and 10 kHz
    Greater than 20 kHz

    What is the result of overdeviation in an FM transmitter?
    Out-of-channel emissions
    Increased transmitter power
    Increased transmitter range
    Poor carrier suppression

    What emission is produced by a reactance modulator connected to an RF power amplifier?
    Multiplex modulation
    Amplitude modulation
    Pulse modulation
    Phase modulation

    Why isn't frequency modulated (FM) phone used below 29.5 MHz?
    The transmitter efficiency for this mode is low
    Harmonics could not be attenuated to practical levels
    The frequency stability would not be adequate
    The bandwidth would exceed limits in the Regulations

    You are transmitting FM on the 2 metre band. Several stations advise you that your transmission is distorted. A quick check with a frequency counter tells you that the transmitter is on the proper frequency. Which of the following is the most probable cause of the distortion?
    The frequency deviation of your transmitter is set too high
    The power supply output voltage is low
    The repeater is reversing your sidebands
    The frequency counter is giving an incorrect reading and you are indeed off frequency

    FM receivers perform in an unusual manner when two or more stations are present. The loudest signal, even though it is only two or three times as loud as the other signals, will be the only transmission demodulated. This is called:
    attach effect
    interference effect
    surrender effect
    capture effect