Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 3.21 RF Exposure Safety

  • RF waves are absorbed by the body causing heat.
  • Antennas should be placed away from where people can get close when transmitting. Especially keep antennas away from the head and eyes
  • Don't point directional antennas at people or where people will be
  • Practice

    What should you do for safety when operating at 1270 MHz?
    Keep antenna away from your eyes when RF is applied
    Make sure that an RF leakage filter is installed at the antenna feed point
    Make sure the standing wave ratio is low before you conduct a test
    Never use a horizontally polarized antenna

    What should you do for safety if you put up a UHF transmitting antenna?
    Make sure the antenna is near the ground to keep its RF energy pointing in the correct direction
    Make sure the antenna will be in a place where no one can get near it when you are transmitting
    Make sure you connect an RF leakage filter at the antenna feed point
    Make sure that RF field screens are in place

    What should you do for safety, before removing the shielding on a UHF power amplifier?
    Make sure that RF leakage filters are connected
    Make sure the antenna feed line is properly grounded
    Make sure the amplifier cannot accidentally be turned on
    Make sure all RF screens are in place at the antenna feed line

    Why should you make sure the antenna of a hand-held transceiver is not close to your head when transmitting?
    To use your body to reflect the signal in one direction
    To reduce your exposure to the radiofrequency energy
    To keep static charges from building up
    To help the antenna radiate energy equally in all directions

    How should you position the antenna of a hand-held transceiver while you are transmitting?
    Pointed towards the station you are contacting
    Pointed away from the station you are contacting
    Pointed down to bounce the signal off the ground
    Away from your head and away from others

    How can exposure to a large amount of RF energy affect body tissue?
    It causes radiation poisoning
    It paralyzes the tissue
    It produces genetic changes in the tissue
    It heats the tissue

    Which body organ is the most likely to be damaged from the heating effects of RF radiation?

    Depending on the wavelength of the signal, the energy density of the RF field, and other factors, in what way can RF energy affect body tissue?
    It causes radiation poisoning
    It causes blood flow to stop
    It produces genetic changes in the tissue
    It heats the tissue

    If you operate your amateur station with indoor antennas, what precautions should you take when you install them?
    Position the antennas parallel to electrical power wires to take advantage of parasitic effects
    Position the antennas along the edge of a wall where it meets the floor or ceiling to reduce parasitic radiation
    Locate the antennas as far away as possible from living spaces that will be occupied while you are operating
    Locate the antennas close to your operating position to minimize feed-line length

    Why should directional high- gain antennas be mounted higher than nearby structures?
    So they will not direct RF energy toward people in nearby structures
    So they will be dried by the wind after a heavy rain storm
    So they will not damage nearby structures with RF energy
    So they will receive more sky waves and fewer ground waves

    For best RF safety, where should the ends and center of a dipole antenna be located?
    As high as possible to prevent people from coming in contact with the antenna
    Near or over moist ground so RF energy will be radiated away from the ground
    As close to the transmitter as possible so RF energy will be concentrated near the transmitter
    Close to the ground so simple adjustments can be easily made without climbing a ladder