Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 6.5 Standing Wave Ratio


    What does an SWR reading of 1:1 mean?
    The best impedance match has been attained
    An antenna for another frequency band is probably connected
    No power is going to the antenna
    The SWR meter is broken

    What does an SWR reading of less than 1.5:1 mean?
    A fairly good impedance match
    An impedance match which is too low
    An impedance mismatch; something may be wrong with the antenna system
    An antenna gain of 1.5

    What kind of SWR reading may mean poor electrical contact between parts of an antenna system?
    A negative reading
    No reading at all
    A jumpy reading
    A very low reading

    What does a very high SWR reading mean?
    The transmitter is putting out more power than normal, showing that it is about to go bad
    The antenna is the wrong length, or there may be an open or shorted connection somewhere in the feed line
    There is a large amount of solar radiation, which means very poor radio conditions
    The signals coming from the antenna are unusually strong, which means very good radio conditions

    What does standing-wave ratio mean?
    The ratio of maximum to minimum voltages on a feed line
    The ratio of maximum to minimum inductances on a feed line
    The ratio of maximum to minimum resistances on a feed line
    The ratio of maximum to minimum impedances on a feed line

    If your antenna feed line gets hot when you are transmitting, what might this mean?
    You should transmit using less power
    The conductors in the feed line are not insulated very well
    The feed line is too long
    The SWR may be too high, or the feed line loss may be high

    If the characteristic impedance of the feedline does not match the antenna input impedance then:
    heat is produced at the junction
    the SWR reading falls to 1:1
    the antenna will not radiate any signal
    standing waves are produced in the feedline

    The result of the presence of standing waves on a transmission line is:
    perfect impedance match between transmitter and feedline
    maximum transfer of energy to the antenna from the transmitter
    lack of radiation from the transmission line
    reduced transfer of RF energy to the antenna

    An SWR meter measures the degree of match between transmission line and antenna by:
    comparing forward and reflected voltage
    measuring radiated RF energy
    measuring the conductor temperature
    inserting a diode in the feed line

    A resonant antenna having a feed point impedance of 200 ohms is connected to a feed line and transmitter which have an impedance of 50 ohms. What will the standing wave ratio of this system be?

    The type of feed line best suited to operating at a high standing wave ratio is:
    75 ohm twin-lead
    600 ohm open-wire
    coaxial line
    300 ohm twin-lead