Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 7.2 Ionospheric Regions


    What causes the ionosphere to form?
    Lightning ionizing the outer atmosphere
    Solar radiation ionizing the outer atmosphere
    Release of fluorocarbons into the atmosphere
    Temperature changes ionizing the outer atmosphere

    What type of solar radiation is most responsible for ionization in the outer atmosphere?
    Ionized particle

    Which ionospheric region is closest to the earth?
    The E region
    The D region
    The F region
    The A region

    Which region of the ionosphere is the least useful for long distance radio-wave propagation?
    The F2 region
    The F1 region
    The D region
    The E region

    What two sub-regions of ionosphere exist only in the daytime?
    Troposphere and stratosphere
    Electrostatic and electromagnetic
    D and E
    F1 and F2

    When is the ionosphere most ionized?

    When is the ionosphere least ionized?
    Shortly before dawn
    Just after noon
    Just after dusk
    Shortly before midnight

    Why is the F2 region mainly responsible for the longest distance radio-wave propagation?
    Because it exists only at night
    Because it is the lowest ionospheric region
    Because it does not absorb radio waves as much as other ionospheric regions
    Because it is the highest ionospheric region

    What is the main reason the 160, 80 and 40 metre amateur bands tend to be useful only for short-distance communications during daylight hours?
    Because of auroral propagation
    Because of D-region absorption
    Because of magnetic flux
    Because of a lack of activity

    During the day, one of the ionospheric layers splits into two parts called:
    D1 & D2
    E1 & E2
    A & B
    F1 & F2

    The position of the E layer in the ionosphere is:
    below the D layer
    below the F layer
    above the F layer