Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 7.3 Hops and Skips


    What is a skip zone?
    An area which is too far away for ground-wave or sky-wave propagation
    An area covered by sky-wave propagation
    An area which is too far away for ground-wave propagation, but too close for sky-wave propagation
    An area covered by ground- wave propagation

    What is the maximum distance along the earth's surface that is normally covered in one hop using the F2 region?
    None; the F2 region does not support radio-wave propagation
    2160 km (1200 miles)
    4500km (2500 miles)
    325 km (180 miles)

    What is the maximum distance along the earth's surface that is normally covered in one hop using the E region?
    2160 km (1200 miles)
    325 km (180 miles)
    4500 km (2500 miles)
    None; the E region does not support radio-wave propagation

    Skip zone is:
    a zone of silence caused by lost sky waves
    a zone between any two refracted waves
    a zone between the end of the ground wave and the point where the first refracted wave returns to earth
    a zone between the antenna and the return of the first refracted wave

    The distance to Europe from your location is approximately 5000 km. What sort of propagation is the most likely to be involved?
    sporadic "E"
    back scatter
    tropospheric scatter

    For radio signals, the skip distance is determined by the:
    power fed to the final
    angle of radiation
    type of transmitting antenna used
    height of the ionosphere and the angle of radiation

    The distance from the transmitter to the nearest point where the sky wave returns to the earth is called the:
    skip zone
    angle of radiation
    skip distance
    maximum usable frequency

    Skip distance is the:
    the minimum distance reached by a signal after one reflection by the ionosphere
    the maximum distance reached by a signal after one reflection by the ionosphere
    the minimum distance reached by a ground-wave signal
    the maximum distance a signal will travel by both a ground wave and reflected wave

    Skip distance is a term associated with signals from the ionosphere. Skip effects are due to:
    reflection and refraction from the ionosphere
    selective fading of local signals
    high gain antennas being used
    local cloud cover

    The skip distance of a sky wave will be greatest when the:
    polarization is vertical
    ionosphere is most densely ionized
    angle between ground and radiation is smallest
    signal given out is strongest

    If the height of the reflecting layer of the ionosphere increases, the skip distance of a high frequency (HF) transmission:
    stays the same
    varies regularly
    becomes greater