Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 7.4 Ionosphere Issues


    What effect does the D region of the ionosphere have on lower frequency HF signals in the daytime?
    It absorbs the signals
    It bends the radio waves out into space
    It refracts the radio waves back to earth
    It has little or no effect on 80-metre radio waves

    What causes the ionosphere to absorb radio waves?
    The presence of ionized clouds in the E region
    The ionization of the D region
    The splitting of the F region
    The weather below the ionosphere

    Two or more parts of the radio wave follow different paths during propagation and this may result in phase differences at the receiver. This "change" at the receiver is called:

    A change or variation in signal strength at the antenna, caused by differences in path lengths, is called:
    path loss

    When a transmitted radio signal reaches a station by a one-hop and two-hop skip path, small changes in the ionosphere can cause:
    consistent fading of received signal
    consistently stronger signals
    variations in signal strength
    a change in the ground-wave signal

    The usual effect of ionospheric storms is to:
    produce extreme weather changes
    cause a fade-out of sky- wave signals
    prevent communications by ground wave
    increase the maximum usable frequency

    On the VHF and UHF bands, polarization of the receiving antenna is very important in relation to the transmitting antenna, yet on HF bands it is relatively unimportant. Why is that so?
    The ionosphere can change the polarization of the signal from moment to moment
    The ground wave and the sky wave continually shift the polarization
    Anomalies in the earth's magnetic field produce a profound effect on HF polarization
    Greater selectivity is possible with HF receivers making changes in polarization redundant

    What causes selective fading?
    Phase differences between radio wave components of the same transmission, as experienced at the receiving station
    Small changes in beam heading at the receiving station
    Time differences between the receiving and transmitting stations
    Large changes in the height of the ionosphere at the receiving station ordinarily occurring shortly before sunrise and sunset

    How does the bandwidth of a transmitted signal affect selective fading?
    It is the same for both wide and narrow bandwidths
    It is more pronounced at wide bandwidths
    Only the receiver bandwidth determines the selective fading effect
    It is more pronounced at narrow bandwidths

    Polarization change often takes place on radio waves that are propagated over long distances. Which of these does not cause polarization change?
    Parabolic interaction
    Passage through magnetic fields (Faraday rotation)

    Reflection of a SSB transmission from the ionosphere causes:
    little or no phase-shift distortion
    phase-shift distortion
    signal cancellation at the receiver
    a high-pitch squeal at the receiver