Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 7.5 Solar Activity


    How do sunspots change the ionization of the atmosphere?
    The more sunspots there are, the greater the ionization
    The more sunspots there are, the less the ionization
    Unless there are sunspots, the ionization is zero
    They have no effect

    How long is an average sunspot cycle?
    17 years
    5 years
    11 years
    7 years

    What is solar flux?
    A measure of the tilt of the earth's ionosphere on the side toward the sun
    The number of sunspots on the side of the sun facing the earth
    The radio energy emitted by the sun
    The density of the sun's magnetic field

    What is the solar-flux index?
    Another name for the American sunspot number
    A measure of solar activity that compares daily readings with results from the last six months
    A measure of solar activity that is taken at a specific frequency
    A measure of solar activity that is taken annually

    What influences all radiocommunication beyond ground-wave or line-of-sight ranges?
    The F2 region of the ionosphere
    The F1 region of the ionosphere
    Solar activity
    Lunar tidal effects

    Which two types of radiation from the sun influence propagation?
    Subaudible and audio-frequency emissions
    Polar region and equatorial emissions
    Infra-red and gamma-ray emissions
    Electromagnetic and particle emissions

    When sunspot numbers are high, how is the ionosphere affected?
    Frequencies up to 40 MHz or higher are normally usable for long-distance communication
    High frequency radio signals are absorbed
    Frequencies up to 100 MHz or higher are normally usable for long-distance communication
    High frequency radio signals become weak and distorted

    All communication frequencies throughout the spectrum are affected in varying degrees by the:
    aurora borealis
    atmospheric conditions

    Average duration of a solar cycle is:
    11 years
    3 years
    6 years
    1 year

    The ability of the ionosphere to reflect high frequency radio signals depends on:
    the amount of solar radiation
    the power of the transmitted signal
    the receiver sensitivity
    upper atmosphere weather conditions

    Propagation cycles have a period of approximately 11: