Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 7.6 MF and HF and Skywaves


    What happens to signals higher in frequency than the critical frequency?
    They pass through the ionosphere
    They are absorbed by the ionosphere
    Their frequency is changed by the ionosphere to be below the maximum usable frequency
    They are reflected back to their source

    What causes the maximum usable frequency to vary?
    The amount of radiation received from the sun, mainly ultraviolet
    The temperature of the ionosphere
    The speed of the winds in the upper atmosphere
    The type of weather just below the ionosphere

    What does maximum usable frequency mean?
    The lowest frequency signal that will reach its intended destination
    The highest frequency signal that is most absorbed by the ionosphere
    The lowest frequency signal that is most absorbed by the ionosphere
    The highest frequency signal that will reach its intended destination

    What can be done at an amateur station to continue HF communications during a sudden ionospheric disturbance?
    Try a higher frequency
    Try the other sideband
    Try a different antenna polarization
    Try a different frequency shift

    What is one way to determine if the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is high enough to support 28 MHz propagation between your station and western Europe?
    Listen for signals on the 10-metre beacon frequency
    Listen for signals on the 20-metre beacon frequency
    Listen for signals on the 39-metre broadcast frequency
    Listen for WWVH time signals on 20 MHz

    What usually happens to radio waves with frequencies below the maximum usable frequency (MUF) when they are sent into the ionosphere?
    They are changed to a frequency above the MUF
    They are completely absorbed by the ionosphere
    They are bent back to the earth
    They pass through the ionosphere

    At what point in the solar cycle does the 20-metre band usually support worldwide propagation during daylight hours?
    Only at the minimum point of the solar cycle
    Only at the maximum point of the solar cycle
    At any point in the solar cycle
    At the summer solstice

    If we transmit a signal, the frequency of which is so high we no longer receive a reflection from the ionosphere, the signal frequency is above the:
    skip distance
    maximum usable frequency
    speed of light
    sunspot frequency

    Communication on the 80 metre band is generally most difficult during:
    daytime in summer
    evening in winter
    evening in summer
    daytime in winter

    The optimum working frequency provides the best long range HF communication. Compared with the maximum usable frequency (MUF), it is usually:
    double the MUF
    half the MUF
    slightly lower
    slightly higher

    During summer daytime, which bands are the most difficult for communications beyond ground wave?
    160 and 80 metres
    40 metres
    30 metres
    20 metres