Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 7.7 VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting


    Which ionospheric region most affects sky-wave propagation on the 6 metre band?
    The F2 region
    The F1 region
    The E region
    The D region

    What effect does tropospheric bending have on 2-metre radio waves?
    It causes them to travel shorter distances
    It garbles the signal
    It reverses the sideband of the signal
    It lets you contact stations farther away

    What causes tropospheric ducting of radio waves?
    Lightning between the transmitting and receiving stations
    An aurora to the north
    A temperature inversion
    A very low pressure area

    That portion of the radiation kept close to the earth's surface due to bending in the atmosphere is called the:
    inverted wave
    ground wave
    tropospheric wave
    ionospheric wave

    What is a sporadic-E condition?
    Patches of dense ionization at E-region height
    Partial tropospheric ducting at E-region height
    Variations in E-region height caused by sunspot variations
    A brief decrease in VHF signals caused by sunspot variations

    On which amateur frequency band is the extended-distance propagation effect of sporadic-E most often observed?
    160 metres
    20 metres
    6 metres
    2 metres

    In the northern hemisphere, in which direction should a directional antenna be pointed to take maximum advantage of auroral propagation?

    Where in the ionosphere does auroral activity occur?
    At F-region height
    At E-region height
    In the equatorial band
    At D-region height

    Which emission modes are best for auroral propagation?
    RTTY and AM
    FM and CW
    CW and SSB
    SSB and FM

    Excluding enhanced propagation modes, what is the approximate range of normal VHF tropospheric propagation?
    2400 km (1500 miles)
    800 km (500 miles)
    3200 km (2000 miles)
    1600 km (1000 miles)

    What effect is responsible for propagating a VHF signal over 800 km (500 miles)?
    Faraday rotation
    Tropospheric ducting
    D-region absorption
    Moon bounce