Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 7.8 Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF


    What kind of propagation would best be used by two stations within each other's skip zone on a certain frequency?

    If you receive a weak, distorted signal from a distance, and close to the maximum usable frequency, what type of propagation is probably occurring?

    What is a characteristic of HF scatter signals?
    Reversed modulation
    A wavering sound
    Reversed sidebands
    High intelligibility

    What makes HF scatter signals often sound distorted?
    Energy scattered into the skip zone through several radio-wave paths
    Auroral activity and changes in the earth's magnetic field
    Propagation through ground waves that absorb much of the signal
    The state of the E-region at the point of refraction

    Why are HF scatter signals usually weak?
    Propagation through ground waves absorbs most of the signal energy
    Only a small part of the signal energy is scattered into the skip zone
    The F region of the ionosphere absorbs most of the signal energy
    Auroral activity absorbs most of the signal energy

    What type of radio-wave propagation allows a signal to be detected at a distance too far for ground-wave propagation but too near for normal skywave propagation?
    Short-path skip
    Sporadic-E skip
    Ground wave

    When does scatter propagation on the HF bands most often occur?
    When the sunspot cycle is at a minimum and D-region absorption is high
    At night
    When the F1 and F2 regions are combined
    When communicating on frequencies above the maximum usable frequency (MUF)

    Which of the following is not a scatter mode?
    Meteor scatter
    Tropospheric scatter
    Ionospheric scatter
    Absorption scatter

    Meteor scatter is most effective on what band?
    40 metres
    6 metres
    15 metres
    160 metres

    Which of the following is not a scatter mode?
    Side scatter
    Back scatter
    Inverted scatter
    Forward scatter

    In which frequency range is meteor scatter most effective for extended-range communication?
    30 - 100 MHz
    10 - 30 MHz
    3 - 10 MHz
    100 - 300 MHz