Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 8.3 Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks


    How can you prevent key-clicks?
    By increasing power
    By using a key-click filter
    By using a better power supply
    By sending CW more slowly

    If someone tells you that signals from your hand-held transceiver are interfering with other signals on a frequency near yours, what may be the cause?
    Your hand-held may be transmitting spurious emissions
    You may need a power amplifier for your hand-held
    Your hand-held may have chirp from weak batteries
    You may need to turn the volume up on your hand-held

    If your transmitter sends signals outside the band where it is transmitting, what is this called?
    Side tones
    Transmitter chirping
    Spurious emissions
    Off-frequency emissions

    What problem may occur if your transmitter is operated without the cover and other shielding in place?
    It may transmit a weak signal
    It may transmit spurious emissions
    It may interfere with other stations operating near its frequency
    It may transmit a chirpy signal

    In Morse code transmission, local RF interference (key-clicks) is produced by:
    the making and breaking of the circuit at the Morse key
    frequency shifting caused by poor voltage regulation
    the power amplifier, and is caused by high frequency parasitics
    poor waveshaping caused by a poor voltage regulator

    Key-clicks, heard from a Morse code transmitter at a distant receiver, are the result of:
    power supply hum modulating the carrier
    too sharp rise and decay times of the carrier
    sparks emitting RF from the key contacts
    changes in oscillator frequency on keying

    In a Morse code transmission, local RF interference (key-clicks) is produced by:
    shift in frequency when keying the transmitter
    sparking at the key contacts
    sudden movement in the receiver loudspeaker
    poor shaping of the waveform

    Key-clicks can be suppressed by:
    inserting a choke and a capacitor at the key
    turning the receiver down
    regulating the oscillator supply voltage
    using a choke in the RF power output

    A parasitic oscillation:
    is generated by parasitic elements of a Yagi beam
    does not cause any radio interference
    is produced in a transmitter oscillator stage
    is an unwanted signal developed in a transmitter

    Parasitic oscillations in the RF power amplifier stage of a transmitter may be found:
    at high or low frequencies
    on harmonic frequencies
    at high frequencies only
    at low frequencies only

    Transmitter RF amplifiers can generate parasitic oscillations:
    on VHF frequencies only
    on the transmitter fundamental frequency
    on either side of the transmitter frequency
    on harmonics of the transmitter frequency