Exam Primer

1. Regulations and Policies
  • Authority and Regulations
  • Licence
  • License Penalties
  • Certificate
  • Operation, Repair
  • Content Restrictions
  • Operating Restrictions
  • Interference
  • Emergencies
  • Non-remuneration, Privacy
  • Call Signs
  • Other Countries
  • Frequency Bands
  • Power Allowed
  • unmodulated carriers, retransmission
  • amplitude modulation, frequency stability, me
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Exams
  • Antenna Structures
  • RF Field Strength
  • Resolving Complaints
  • 2. Operating and Procedures
  • VHF/UHF Repeaters - Voice
  • Phonetic Alphabet
  • Voice Operating Procedures
  • tuning, testing and dummy loads
  • Morse Code (CW) procedures
  • RST signal reporting, S meter
  • Q Signals
  • Emergency Operating Procedures
  • Record Keeping, Antenna Orientation and Maps
  • 3. Station Assembly, Practice and Safety
  • Layout of HF Stations
  • Layout of FM Transmitters
  • Layout of FM Receivers
  • Layout of CW Transmitters
  • Layout of SSB/CW receivers
  • Layout of SSB Transmitters
  • Layout of Digital Systems
  • Layout of Regulated Power Supplies
  • Layout of Yagi-Uda Antennas
  • Receiver Fundamentals
  • Transmitter, carrier, keying, AM
  • Carrier Suppression, SSB
  • Frequency and Phase Modulation
  • Station Accessories
  • Digital Modes
  • Batteries
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical Safety
  • Antenna and Tower Safety
  • RF Exposure Safety
  • 4. Circuit Components
  • Amplifier Fundamentals
  • Diodes
  • Bipolar Transistors
  • Field-effect Transistors
  • Tiode Vacuum Tubes
  • Resister Color Codes
  • 5. Basic Electronics and Theory
  • Metric Prefixes
  • Basic Concepts
  • Circuits
  • Ohm's law
  • Series and Parallel Resistors
  • Power law, Resister Power Disipation
  • AC and frequency
  • Ratios, Logarithms and Decibels
  • Inductance and Capacitance
  • Reactance and Impedance
  • Magnetica and Transformers
  • Resonance and Tuned Circuits
  • Meters and Measurements
  • 6. Feedlines and Antenna Systems
  • Impedance and Feedlines
  • Balanced and Unbalanced feedlines
  • Feedlines and Connectors
  • Line Losses
  • Standing Wave Ratio
  • Impedance Matching
  • Isotropic Sources, Polarization
  • Wavelength vs Physical Length
  • Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Vertical Antennas
  • Yagi Antennas
  • Wire Antennas
  • Quad/loop Antennas
  • 7. Radio Wave Propagation
  • Propogation Types
  • Ionospheric Regions
  • Hops and Skips
  • Ionosphere Issues
  • Solar Activity
  • MF and HF and Skywaves
  • VHF and UHF, Sporadic-E, Aurira, Ducting
  • Scatter - HF, VHF, UHF
  • 8. Interference and Suppression
  • Front-end overload
  • Audio Rectification, Bypass Capacitors, Ferri
  • Intermodulation, Spurious, Key-clicks
  • Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments
  • Filters
  • 8.4 Harmonics, Splatter, Transmitter Adjustments


    If a neighbour reports television interference on one or two channels only when you transmit on 15 metres, what is probably the cause of the interference?
    De ionization of the ionosphere near your neighbour's TV antenna
    Harmonic radiation from your transmitter
    TV receiver front-end overload
    Too much low pass filtering on the transmitter

    What is meant by harmonic radiation?
    Unwanted signals at frequencies which are multiples of the fundamental (chosen) frequency
    Unwanted signals that are combined with a 60-Hz hum
    Unwanted signals caused by sympathetic vibrations from a nearby transmitter
    Signals which cause skip propagation to occur

    Why is harmonic radiation from an amateur station not wanted?
    It uses large amounts of electric power
    It may cause sympathetic vibrations in nearby transmitters
    It may cause auroras in the air
    It may cause interference to other stations and may result in out-of-band signals

    What type of interference may come from a multi-band antenna connected to a poorly tuned transmitter?
    Parasitic excitation
    Harmonic radiation
    Auroral distortion

    If you are told your station was heard on 21 375 kHz, but at the time you were operating on 7125 kHz, what is one reason this could happen?
    Your transmitter's power-supply filter choke was bad
    You were sending CW too fast
    Your transmitter was radiating harmonic signals
    Your transmitter's power-supply filter capacitor was bad

    What causes splatter interference?
    Keying a transmitter too fast
    Signals from a transmitter's output circuit are being sent back to its input circuit
    The transmitting antenna is the wrong length
    Overmodulation of a transmitter

    Your amateur radio transmitter appears to be creating interference to the television on channel 3 (60-66 MHz) when you are transmitting on the 15 metre band. Other channels are not affected. The most likely cause is:
    no high-pass filter on the TV
    a bad ground at the transmitter
    harmonic radiation from the transmitter
    front-end overload of the TV

    One possible cause of TV interference by harmonics from an SSB transmitter is from "flat topping" driving the final amplifier into non- linear operation. The most appropriate remedy for this is:
    retune transmitter output
    use another antenna
    reduce microphone gain
    reduce oscillator output

    In a transmitter, excessive harmonics are produced by:
    low SWR
    resonant circuits
    a linear amplifier
    overdriven stages

    An interfering signal from a transmitter is found to have a frequency of 57 MHz (TV Channel 2 is 54 - 60 MHz). This signal could be the:
    crystal oscillator operating on its fundamental
    seventh harmonic of an 80 metre transmission
    second harmonic of a 10 metre transmission
    third harmonic of a 15 metre transmission

    Harmonics may be produced in the RF power amplifier of a transmitter if:
    excessive drive signal is applied to it
    the output tank circuit is not correctly tuned
    the oscillator frequency is unstable
    modulation is applied to more than one stage